1 Ambiente Construído 2010 Vol: 10(4):. DOI: 10.1590/S1678-86212010000400009

Morfología forestal y confort térmico en "ciudades oasis" de zonas áridas

Usually, cities settled in arid or semi-arid regions follow an urban development model based on compact morphologies as a bioclimatic strategy for the control of solar radiation. However, the reference case in this study, the city of Mendoza, Argentina, located also in a seismic and semiarid zone, has a different urban model. The city displays wide road channels and different tree species along the streets in opposition to the compact city model. In this scheme, the shadow is achieved through the urban forest structure. For these cities in dry-lands called "oasis cities" it is interesting to analyze in depth the effect of the different tree species and their green structures on the thermal balance of urban canyons. For this reason; this paper evaluates the thermal comfort conditions, in urban canyons of low building density forested with tree species of second magnitude, in summer. The results show that the observed thermal behavior and the thermal comfort conditions are clearly consistent with the characteristics of growth and development of forest configurations evaluated and its entailment with the climatic resources and morphology of the evaluated city.

Mentions
Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17
Altmetric
References
  1. CANTÓN, M. A.; ROSA, C. de; KASPERIDUS, H. Sustentabilidad del Bosque Urbano en el Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mendoza: análisis y diagnóstico de la condición de las arboledas. AVERMA, v. 7, n. 1 p , 29-34 (2003) .
  2. CANTÓN, A., CORTEGOSO J., ROSA, C. Solar Permeability of Urban Trees in Cities of Western Argentina. Energy and Buildings, v. 20 , 219-230 (1993) .
  3. CARRIERI, S. Diagnóstico y Propuesta sobre la Problemática del Arbolado de Calles en Mendoza. Cátedra de Espacios Verdes. Mendoza: Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. cap.11 , 1-6 (2004) .
  4. CLARKE, J. F, BACH, B. Comparison of the Comfort Conditions in Different Urban and Suburban Microenvironments. International Journal of Biometeorology, v. 15, n. 1 , 41-54 (1971) .
  5. CORREA, E. N. Isla de Calor Urbana: el caso del área metropolitana de Mendoza. Tese (Doutorado em Engenharia Civil) - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta , (2006) .
  6. CORREA, ERICA; ROSA, C.; LESINO, G. Monitoreo de Clima Urbano: análisis estadístico de los factores que determinan la isla de calor y su aporte al diseño de los espacios urbanos. AVERMA, Salta, v. 10 , 41-48 (2006) .
  7. CORREA, E.; ROSA, C. de; LESINO, G. Isla de Calor Urbana: distribución espacio-temporal de temperaturas dentro del área metropolitana de Mendoza. AVERMA, Salta, v. 10 , 121-128 (2006) .
  8. CORREA, et al. Evaluación del Impacto sobre la Visión de Cielo de las Distintas Densidades Edilicias Forestadas a Partir de Imágenes Hemiesféricas: caso del área metropolitana de Mendoza. In: BRAZILIAN MEETING ON COMFORT AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE BUILT-UP ENVIRONMENT, 9., Brazil Proceedings. Brazil, 2007 , (2007) .
  9. CORREA, et al. Influencia del Uso de Distintas Magnitudes Forestales Sobre el Comportamiento Térmico de Los Cañones Urbanos: el caso de la Primera Magnitud en Ciudades de Zonas Áridas. AVERMA, Salta, v. 12, n. 1 , 29-34 (2008) .
  10. CORREA, et al. Urban Heat Island Effect on Heating and Cooling Degree Days Distribution in Mendoza's Metropolitan Area and Environmental Costs. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLAR HEATING, COOLING AND BUILDINGS, Lisboa Proceedings. Lisboa, 2008 , (2008) .
  11. DEOSTHALI, V. Assessment of Impact of Urbanization on Climate: an application of bio-climatic index. Atmospheric Environment, v. 33, n. 24/25 , 4125-4133 (1999) .
  12. EMMANUEL, R. Thermal Comfort Implications of Urbanization in a Warm-Humid City: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka. Building and Environment, v. 40, n. 12, 1591–1601 , (2005) .
  13. GILES, B. D.; BALAFOUTIS, C. H. The Greek Heatwaves ofand 1988. International Journal of Climatology, v. 10, n. 5, , 1990 , 505-517 (1987) .
  14. HERRINGTON, LEE P.; VITTUM, J. S. Human Thermal Comfort in Urban Outdoor Spaces. In: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-25. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. P , 130-138 .
  15. CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION. Traditional Knowledge: report of the ad hoc Panel, ICCD/COP (4)/CST/2. Disponível em: <Link. Acesso em: 28 out , (2004) .
  16. LE CORBUSIER. Les Trois Établissements Humains. Paris: Donoël , (1945) .
  17. MASMOUDI et al. Relation of Geometry, Vegetation and Thermal Comfort Around Buildings in Urban Settings: the case of hot arid regions Said MAZOUZ. Energy and Buildings, v. 36, n. 77 , 710-719 (2004) .
  18. MATHER, J. R. Climatology: fundamentals and applications. Blacklick: McGraw-Hill , (1974) .
  19. MORRIS, C.; SIMMONDS, I.; PLUMMER, N. Quantification of the Influences of Wind and Cloud on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island of a Large City. Journal of Applied Meteorology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 169–182 , (2001) .
  20. NIEUWOLT, S. Tropical Climatology. London: Wiley , (1977) .
  21. OKE, T. R. Initial Guidance to Obtain Representative Meteorological Observations at Urban Sites. IOM Report, Td In Press, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva , (2004) .
  22. OKE, T. R.; JOHNSON, G. T.; STEYN, D. G. Simulation of Surface Urban Heat Islands Under ‘Ideal' Conditions at Night. Part 2: diagnosis of causation. Boundary- Layer Meteorology, v. 56, n. 4 , 339-358 (1991) .
  23. THOM EC. The Discomfort Index. Weatherwise, v. 12 , 57-60 (1959) .
  24. UNEP. Status of Drylands & Desertification in the World. (Data from United Nations Environmental Programme) , (1992) .
  25. UNGER, J. Heat Island Intensity with Different Meteorological Conditions in a Medium-Sized Town: Szeged, Hungary. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, v. 54, n. 3/4, p. 147–151 , (1996) .
  26. UNGER, J. Comparisons of Urban and Rural Bioclimatological Conditions in the Case of a Central-European City. International Journal of Biometeorology, v. 43, p. 139–144 , (1999) .
  27. YAMASHITA, S. et al. On Relationships Between Heat Island and Sky View Factor in the Cities of Tama River Basin, Japan. Atmospheric Environment, v. 20, n. 4, p. 681–686 , (1986) .
Expand