1 European journal of clinical nutrition 2005 Vol: 59(10):1099-1104. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602199

FAO/WHO/UNU equations overestimate resting metabolic rate in Vietnamese adults.

To evaluate the FAO/WHO/UNU equations for predicting resting metabolic rate (RMR) in Vietnamese adults.

Mentions
Figures
FIGURE 1


(a) Comparison between measured and predicted RMR by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) in males aged 18−29 y. (b) Comparison between measured and predicted RMR by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) in female subjects aged 18−29 y. (c) Comparison between measured and predicted RMR by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) in males aged 30−60 y. (d) Comparison between measured and predicted RMR by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) in female subjects aged 30−60 y. FIGURE 2


Resting metabolic rate. (a) Difference (measurement vs prediction of FAO/WHO/UNU 1985) for males aged 18−29 y with 95% limits of agreement. (b) Difference (measurement vs prediction of FAO/WHO/UNU 1985) for female subjects aged 18−29 y with 95% limits of agreement. (c) Difference (measurement vs prediction of FAO/WHO/UNU 1985) for males aged 30−60 y with 95% limits of agreement. (d) Difference (measurement vs prediction of FAO/WHO/UNU 1985) for males aged 30−60 y with 95% limits of agreement.
Altmetric
References
  1. Bland JM & Altman DG. (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet i: 307−310 , .
    • . . . The individual difference between measured and predicted values of RMR plotted against the measured values using the technique of Bland and Altman (1986) in all age–sex groups is shown in Figures 2a–d . . .
  2. Clark HD & Hoffer LF. (1991) Reappraisal of the resting metabolic rate of normal young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 21−26 , .
    • . . . The Schofield equations predict BMR accurately in many individuals from temperate climates, but they seem to be less accurate in predicting BMR in populations in the tropics (Piers & Shetty, 1993; Ismail et al, 1998) and in some populations in North America (Clark & Hoffer, 1991) . . .
    • . . . Our results were similar to findings in Malaysians, Indians, and North Americans (Clark & Hoffer, 1991; Ismail et al, 1998). . . .
  3. De Lorenzo A, Andreoli A, Bertoli S, Testolin G, Oriani G & Deurenberg P. (2000) Resting metabolic rate in Italians: relation with body composition and anthropometric parameters. Acta Diab. 37: 77−81 , .
    • . . . The individual differences between measured and predicted values were in ranges normally found by other authors (De Lorenzo et al, 2000) . . .
    • . . . Values from the Italian subjects in Schofield's study are high, and some reports suggest they are higher than measured values of other Italian populations (De Lorenzo et al, 2000) . . .
  4. Deurenberg YM, Tan BY, Chew SK, Deurenberg P & van Staveren W. (1999) Manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors at low level of body mass index and waist-hip ratio in Singaporean Chinese. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 8: 177−183 , .
    • . . . Noncommunicable lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease are increasing around the world, even in developing countries (Ko et al, 1999; Deurenberg et al, 1999) . . .
  5. Giay T, Khoi HH, Lien DTK, Lap CQ & Ngu T. (1997) The Recommended Nutrition Allowance for Vietnamese pp 10−11 Hanoi: Medical Publishing House , .
    • . . . To this day, the FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 predictive equations are still used to calculate RMR for Vietnamese people (Giay et al, 1997), and no validation studies on predictive equations for RMR have been carried out in Vietnam . . .
  6. Hayter JE & Henry CJK. (1993) Basal metabolic rate in human subjects migrating between tropical and temperate regions: a longitudinal study and review of previous work. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 47: 724−734 , .
    • . . . They also appear to overestimate BMR in many populations (Hayter & Henry, 1993; Piers & Shetty, 1993; Soares et al, 1993) . . .
  7. Hayter JE & Henry CJK. (1994) A re-examination of basal metabolic rate predictive equations: the importance of geographic origin of subjects in sample selection. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 48: 702−707 , .
    • . . . Since 1985, equations developed by Schofield and colleagues have formed the basis of equations used by FAO/WHO/UNU (Schofield, 1985; Hayter & Henry, 1994; Shetty et al, 1996) . . .
    • . . . Similar findings were reported in studies in Japan, India, and China (Henry & Rees, 1991; Hayter & Henry, 1994) . . .
    • . . . Such overestimation by the FAO/WHO/UNU predictive equations has been suggested in other reports, and may be explained by a disproportionately large group of Italian subjects in Schofield's database (Shetty et al, 1996). Hayter and Henry (1994) reported, in a comparison of RMR data from Italians, North Europeans, Americans, Indians, and Chinese that the Italian regression equations were higher compared to other populations groups . . .
    • . . . We applied the 'Italian' and 'Chinese' predictive equations of Hayter and Henry (1994) to the young group of this population and found 0.11960.0062 and 0.11750.0062 ('Italian' equation) and 0.10540.0050 and 0.10370.005 ('Chinese' equation) for young male and female subjects, respectively . . .
    • . . . Values from the Italian subjects in Schofield's study are high, and some reports suggest they are higher than measured values of other Italian populations (De Lorenzo et al, 2000). Hayter and Henry, (1994) argue that the subjects in the Schofield study were primarily young people with relatively high activity levels . . .
  8. Henry CJK & Rees DG. (1991) New predictive equations for the estimation of basal metabolic rate in tropical peoples. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 45: 177−185 , .
    • . . . According to Henry, the FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 predictive equations overestimate BMR in people living in the tropics by an average of 8%, and by up to 11.5% for males over 30 y old (Henry & Rees, 1991) . . .
  9. Ismail MN, Ng KK, Chee SS, Roslee R & Zawiah H. (1998) Predictive equations for the estimation of basal metabolic rate in Malaysian adult. Malay. J. Nutr. 4: 81−90 , .
    • . . . It is well known that basal metabolic rate (BMR) constitutes about 60–70% of total energy expenditure, and it has thus been used in estimating the energy requirements of populations (Ismail et al, 1998). . . .
    • . . . The Schofield equations predict BMR accurately in many individuals from temperate climates, but they seem to be less accurate in predicting BMR in populations in the tropics (Piers & Shetty, 1993; Ismail et al, 1998) and in some populations in North America (Clark & Hoffer, 1991) . . .
    • . . . A study in Malaysia showed that the FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 predictive equations overestimate by an average of 13% in males and 9% in female subjects (Ismail et al, 1998) . . .
    • . . . Our results were similar to findings in Malaysians, Indians, and North Americans (Clark & Hoffer, 1991; Ismail et al, 1998). . . .
  10. Khoi HH. (1996) Problems of Nutrition in Transition Period pp 153−266 Hanoi: Medical Publishing House , .
    • . . . In Vietnam, obesity and noncommunicable diseases related to nutrition are increasing, particularly in big cities, even though energy intake has not changed much in the last 10 y (Khoi, 1996; NIN, 2001; Khoi et al, 2003) . . .
  11. Khoi HH, Khan NC, Mai LB & Tuyen LD. (2003) General Nutrition Survey 2000 pp 21−37 Hanoi: Medical Publishing House , .
    • . . . In Vietnam, obesity and noncommunicable diseases related to nutrition are increasing, particularly in big cities, even though energy intake has not changed much in the last 10 y (Khoi, 1996; NIN, 2001; Khoi et al, 2003) . . .
  12. Ko GTC, Chan JCN, Cockram CS & Woo J. (1999) Prediction of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or albuminuria using simple anthropometric indexes in Hong Kong Chinese. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 23: 1136−1142 , .
    • . . . Noncommunicable lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease are increasing around the world, even in developing countries (Ko et al, 1999; Deurenberg et al, 1999) . . .
  13. Levy PS & Lemeshow S. (1999) Sampling of Populations. Methods and Applications 3rd Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, INC , .
    • . . . From the first family, using the 'random walking' method, we approached another family and added subjects to obtain 450 adults (Levy & Lemeshow, 1999) . . .
  14. Ministry of Health-Vietnam (MOH). (2003) Manual for the Control and Prevention of the Affection of Tobacco in Vietnam Hanoi: Medical Publishing House , .
    • . . . After screening, a total of 188 healthy subjects (98 males, 90 females) who were without disabilities, hypertension, chronic diseases of the heart or lungs, were not heavy smokers (MOH, 2003), had a normal BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) and light, moderate, or high physical activity levels were invited to participate . . .
  15. National Institute of Nutrition (NIN). (2001) National Nutrition Strategy pp 14−19 Hanoi: Medical Publishing House , .
    • . . . In Vietnam, obesity and noncommunicable diseases related to nutrition are increasing, particularly in big cities, even though energy intake has not changed much in the last 10 y (Khoi, 1996; NIN, 2001; Khoi et al, 2003) . . .
  16. Piers LS & Shetty PS. (1993) Basal metabolic rates of Indian women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 47: 586−591 , .
    • . . . The Schofield equations predict BMR accurately in many individuals from temperate climates, but they seem to be less accurate in predicting BMR in populations in the tropics (Piers & Shetty, 1993; Ismail et al, 1998) and in some populations in North America (Clark & Hoffer, 1991) . . .
    • . . . They also appear to overestimate BMR in many populations (Hayter & Henry, 1993; Piers & Shetty, 1993; Soares et al, 1993) . . .
  17. Schofield WN. (1985) Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum. Nutr. Clin. Nutr. 39 (Suppl 1): 5−41 , .
    • . . . Since 1985, equations developed by Schofield and colleagues have formed the basis of equations used by FAO/WHO/UNU (Schofield, 1985; Hayter & Henry, 1994; Shetty et al, 1996) . . .
  18. Shetty PS, Henry CJK, Black AE & Prentice AM. (1996) Energy requirements of adults: an update on basal metabolic rates (BMRs) and physical activity levels (PAL). Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50 (Suppl 1): S21−S23 , .
    • . . . Since 1985, equations developed by Schofield and colleagues have formed the basis of equations used by FAO/WHO/UNU (Schofield, 1985; Hayter & Henry, 1994; Shetty et al, 1996) . . .
    • . . . Several studies have examined these predictive formulas for BMR in people in tropical countries (Valencia et al, 1994; Shetty et al, 1996) . . .
    • . . . Such overestimation by the FAO/WHO/UNU predictive equations has been suggested in other reports, and may be explained by a disproportionately large group of Italian subjects in Schofield's database (Shetty et al, 1996) . . .
  19. Siervo M, Boschi V & Falconi C. (2003) Which REE prediction equation should we use in normal-weight, overweight and obese women? Clin. Nutr. 22 (2): 193−204 , .
    • . . . Thus, to minimize such bias (Siervo et al, 2003), we selected subjects with BMI in the normal range . . .
  20. Soares MJ, Francis DG & Shetty PS. (1993) Predictive equations for basal metabolic rates of Indian males. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 47: 389−394 , .
    • . . . They also appear to overestimate BMR in many populations (Hayter & Henry, 1993; Piers & Shetty, 1993; Soares et al, 1993) . . .
  21. Valencia ME, Moya SY, McNeill G & Haggarty P. (1994) Basal metabolic rate and body fatness of adult men in northern Mexico. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 48 (3): 205−211 , .
    • . . . Several studies have examined these predictive formulas for BMR in people in tropical countries (Valencia et al, 1994; Shetty et al, 1996) . . .
  22. Weir JBD. (1949) New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J. Physiol. 109: 1−9 , .
    • . . . RMR was derived using the Weir equations (Weir, 1949, 1990) . . .
  23. Weir JBD. (1990) New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. Nuture 6: 213−223 , .
    • . . . RMR was derived using the Weir equations (Weir, 1949, 1990) . . .
  24. William DM, Frank IK & Victor LK. (1991) Exercise Physiology 3rd Edition. London: Lea & Febiger , .
    • . . . In the screening, subjects' height and weight were measured and a short questionnaire about occupation, disease history, and physical activity (defined by WHO criteria) was completed (William et al, 1991) . . .
Expand