Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation , (2012) .
- . . . According to the World Health Organization, more than 600 million Indians practise open defecation — making up 60% of the 1.1 billion people who do so worldwide1 . . .
Census of India 2011 , (2012) .
- . . . More than 87% of people in India's cities (compared with 33% in rural areas) now have access to a toilet2 . . .
- . . . Around 97 million Indians do not have access to clean drinking water, putting the nation second only to China2 . . .
- . . . By 2011, just 20% of urban Indians had no toilet or used a public latrine2 . . .
Kamyotra, J. S. Water quality and waste water management vision , 2012-17 (2011) .
- . . . Nitrate levels in groundwater across India exceed 45 milligrams per litre — a sure sign of sewage contamination3. . . .
CPCB Status of Water Supply, Wastewater Generation and Treatment in Class-I cities and Class-II towns of India (Central Pollution Control Board, 2009) Status of Water Supply, Wastewater Generation and Treatment in Class-I cities and Class-II towns of India , (2009) .
- . . . Officially, the country has the capacity to treat 30% of its waste water4 . . .
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Sanitation for all
Water pollution from sewage is causing great damage to India. The nation needs to complete its waste systems and reinvent toilet technologies, says Sunita Narain.